Marc's WhiteWater Gear Reviews

Outside Help

If the worst comes to the worst, you’ll need outside help. But only in circumstances that are serious enough.

This section looks at the full range of communication methods of calling for help, with the proximity of your route to civilisation sometimes determining the appropriateness of each method, which should be factored into your planning. Take the appropriate kit for your route.

Undirected/Passive Communication

This is when a general communication is sent, being addressed to no one in particular, but in the hope that someone will see or hear a distress communication. The following list is in order of effectiveness:

Whistle or Torch

An essential piece of kit for everyone to carry is a torch and whistle, with the sole purpose of the whistle being for emergency signalling.
The International distress signal is 6 blasts repeated with an interval of one minute between each series of 6 blasts. If your whistles are heard, you should hear three whistles in reply. Keep repeating the whistle blasts so that your location can be determined. Help may take some time to reach you, so keep whistling every minute until you are certain that rescuers are on the way, i.e. you can see a dozen bobbing head torch beams making their way to you.
Follow the same process for torchlight, flashing the light instead of whistling. However, If a Search & Rescue helicopter is nearby, shine the torch on the ground, not at the helicopter, as the bright light will affect the pilot’s Night Vision equipment.
The obvious limiting features are that someone has to hear or see you, and if you’re in a remote valley after everyone else has left, your signals could go unheard.

Pyro signals


When in distress, a fire can be helpfull in many ways. For attracting attention, place a fire on high ground, preferably within hearing distance.
When out of hearing distance, leave an arrow pointing towards your location. When sight is compromised by rain, mist or clouds, the smell of a fire will give an indication of your location. I pack a lighter and a couple of strips of inner tube. They are argueably the quickest way to make a rescue fire. (And it smokes and stinks!).

Compact Distress Signal

I use these Compact Distress Signals. The bare minimum that one should take when going into the outdoors. These signals, used to reveal your location when rescue services are sighted, are for day or night-use.
Instruction video:

Each cartridge projects to a height of 50 metres, so it is of limited use in thick woods or deep vallays. It burns for over 5 seconds at a minimum of 10.000 candela and is visible for at least 5 miles in daylight increasing to 10 miles at night, depending on weather conditions. 74 g (2.6 oz)

Handheld Flare

The Red hand-held, short range distress signal is used to pinpoint location by day or night. It burns for 60 seconds at 15.000 candela (25.000 lumen).
I pack this Red Handflare Mk8. These are the standard flares you’ll find on most lifeboats across the world. They feature a telescopic handle making it very compact and space saving when stowed in my kayak.
Instruction video:

Easily extended and pull wire operated, they help helicopter pilots to pinpoint casualty location and give vital information about wind speed and direction. These flair can be submersed when burning, without extinguishing. It burns for 60 seconds at 15.000 candela. 176g (6.2 oz)

Rocket/Parachute Flares

Rocket/parachute flares are set off from the hand, can reach a height of 300 metres (about 1,000ft).
Personal/rocket flares have that initial height (can be seen from further afield), a bang, which may grab attention if there’s anyone around.
I pack the Para Red Rocket Mk8A. These are the standard rockets you’ll find on most lifeboats across the world.
Instruction video:

Flares must not be used near Search & Rescue helicopters at night, as they will seriously compromise the effectiveness of Night Vision equipment.
Designed to withstand exceptional environmental exposure and to perform reliably even after immersion in water, the pull wire ignitor and improved grip provides easy handling. Ejecting a red flare on a parachute at 300m (1.000ft), burning for 40 seconds at 30.000 candela. 235 g (8.3 oz)

Smoke Beacons

When indication of rescue services nearby, these are used to mark the landing spot for a helicopter, showing the spot, the wind direction and -speed. I pack the Lifesmoke Mk9. Instruction video:

It’s a compact, flat top, day time distress signal designed to be easy and safe to handle. It provides effective position marking during rescue operations and can be used to indicate wind direction, producing dense orange smoke for a minimum of 3 minutes. See helicopter information lower on this page. 370g (13.05 oz) .

The Pains Wessex company has been a leading supplier of marine distress signals for over 100 years, with distributors all around Europe.
If you have problems finding the Pains Wessex products, by advised that similar, if not identical, products are sold under the Comet brand.

Strobe Light

This bit of kit is of more use in the dark than day, and can be seen from several miles away. Batteries last for many hours.  Mountain rescue teams use them, but I suggest that the weight of a strobe could be exchanged for more useful emergency kit. So, I don’t own one.

Direct Communication

This is when a ‘message’ is sent that is addressed to a specific person or organisation.
The following list is in order of effectiveness:

Before Phone/Radio Contact

  • Location: Many of the gear we carry around can provide this information, check your maps, telephone, camera, watch and any gps-enabled aparatus. Give them landmarks. Is there a road in sight? Is there a 50×50 meter clearing close by for a helicopter to land? Tell them if you have flairs, beacons, makeshift signs and such. Tell them your last know location, general direction and time since.
  • Emergency. Give as much information as possible about why this is an emergency:
    • Wounded people? Immobile, bleeding internally, externally, in shock?
    • Stuck, pinned, lost, dead people?
    • Lost? Give them landmarks. tell them if you have flairs, beacons and such. tell them your last know location, general direction and time since.
  • Urgency. Why is help time-sensitive. Wounded people, pinned people, weather closing in.

Prepare to give rescue services as much information as available:

International Emergency Telephone Codes
& Mountain Rescue Services

Please help me filling this chart with the correct information!

CountryPhone numberRadio Channel & Frequencies
Austria140 / 144 / 112No Radio Call available
Bosnia and
Bulgaria(088)1470 / (02)963200055.475 Mhz or 147.850 Mhz
Czech Republic
England, Wales,
999 / 112Radio call frequency restricted to the emergency services
France112 transfer the calls to the mountain rescue unit.150 MHz range
Bavarian Alps,
low mountainrange
112Radio call frequencies restricted to the emergency services
Italy118, activation of HEMS or mountain rescue teamsFor mountain rescue only 71.500 / 71.550
MHz, not available for the public.
Netherlands112VHF Channel 10, Freq. 156.500
Norway112 (police) / 113 (health service)Channel 5. Restricted to professionals
Poland112 / 601100300Radio frequency 153.625 MHz
Slovenia112Usually 157.725 MHz (not for public use)
Spain112 / 062Radio call frequency, if there is one available: 146:175 MHz.
Switzerland144 / 1414 / 112161.300 MHz

Mobile Phone Voice

Use the telephone numbers in the list on top of this page.  This is the best option if available and must take priority over any other communication method you may have at your disposal.
Emergency Calls Only
If your phone is showing ‘Emergency Calls Only’, this means that you will be able to make a emergency call. However, you will not be able to receive incoming calls. Inform the operator of this, as the police and/or Mountain Rescue Team will need to call you back. If someone else in the group has a phone that is not showing ‘Emergency Calls Only’, use their phone for the emergency call, as it will allow incoming calls.
Saving Mobile Battery
The primary function of your phone when on a kayak trip, should be for communication in an emergency. In remote areas battery drain can be rapid, and quicker than urban locations, for a variety of reasons, and the following steps will ensure that you have sufficient battery if you do need to make a call.

  • either switch off your mobile, or set it to ‘flight’ or ‘aircraft’ mode. Flight mode switches off the phone’s search for a mobile network, and thus prevents battery drain.
  • make sure all unnecessary smart phone apps are closed down.
  • switch off data, Bluetooth and GPS connections unless required. Some phones allow activation even when in flight mode.
  • store your phone in your rucksack and in a waterproof bag or container, but be sure in the prevailing conditions that the ring-tone can be heard (if called for emergency services).

Mobile Phone text

If the signal is shaky or very weak, try SMS/text. Text and await a reply. You must have registered with the service before using. Include your number in case text is onward relayed.

Personal Locator Beacon (PLB)

My ACR ResQlink

Reliably gets distress-alert message with position to SAR /emergency services via satellite, through the international Cospas-Sarsat system. Once tasked, SAR helicopters can source the homing transmissions.

Satellite Phone

Make a phone call from virtually anywhere (must be outside or under fairly transparent cover). Handsets relatively expensive and considerable ongoing financial commitment to keep active.

Satellite Messenger 

My Zoleo Device

Message sent via commercial satellite constellations. SPOT Messenger provides GPS position with each of additional three customised messages, with your SOS pre-set emergency info as the top level, involving the Emergency Services.. Emergency message sent to UK emergency services. Must be used outside in the clear to get GPS position and to access the satellites.

VHF Radio / Walkie Talkie

My Baofeng UV-9R

Of use especially in coastal mountainous areas. You will know if someone has received your message. VHF radios sometimes require an operator to be licensed. Even in places where usage is not permitted, if the means is available and there is genuine distress, it should be used.

Radio Communications Techniques

There are a few simple practices that can make a big difference in the effectiveness of radio communications. Handheld radios should be held away from the body with the radio and antenna in a vertical position. If the antenna is in contact with the operator’s body, the RF signal strength will be reduced. Holding the radio and its antenna as high as possible will increase the line-of-sight range. The antennas on both transceivers in a radio link need to be in the same plane, or polarization. For VHF/UHF mobile radios, handheld radios, and repeaters, the polarization is always vertical. Having the antennas in different polarities can result in up to a 100-fold loss of signal strength. To transmit a message, hold the radio 5 to 10 centimeters from the face and listen for several seconds to ensure the frequency is available. Press and hold the push-to-talk button for 1 second before speaking, this prevents the first word or two of the message from being dropped. Speak slowly and clearly in a normal pitch, using normal vocabulary. It is often a good idea for the receiving station to repeat radio messages back to the sending station to ensure that the message was correctly understood, particularly if the signal is weak or garbled. One should assume that all radio transmissions are being monitored and that anything said on the radio is being said in public.


Usable if enough direct sunlight is available. As a highly directional signal, it should be used when potential help is sighted. Signal in threes to communicate distress.


At night, military Search & Rescue helicopter pilots hate strobe lights and flares at short range and would rather home in, after long range identification has been established, to a torch beam pointed and flashed at the ground.

Ground to Air Communication

When you’re in distress in the outdoors and you need to call for help, you may choose to use a number of different rescue signal techniques. But if you believe that an airplane, helicopter, or other airborne rescue parties may be searching for you, then you can use the five-symbol ground-to-air emergency code to signal a specific message in advance of the aircraft’s landing. Most importantly, the ground-to-air emergency code can help let rescuers know whether or not anyone in your party is injured, and it can guide them more effectively towards your location.

  • As with other visual signals, signaling in threes communicates and confirms distress.
  • Choose a large, open area as close as possible to your location for the signal location.
  • Choose to place signals on the highest, flattest terrain you can find near your location.
  • Choose a signal that will contrast with the underlying terrain. Choose dark-colored branches, for example, on top of the white snow.
  • Go big! Use several rows of rocks or debris to build each part of a signal letter so that it is thick enough and big enough to be seen clearly from above.
  • Be prepared to use a backup signal, such as a signal mirror, to confirm your location as soon as you see aircraft in the area.
  • The five ground-to-air emergency code symbols and their meanings are as follows:

V or X : Require Assistance

A V-shaped signal communicates that you need assistance, in general, but it doesn’t imply that you or someone in your party is injured.
Use the letter X to communicate that you or someone in your party needs medical attention.
Whereas the V symbol communicates a call for help, the X symbol communicates a more urgent request for assistance.

N : No or Negative

The N symbol can be used to communicate your negative response to a question that the aircraft or rescue organization has asked.

Y : Yes or Affirmative

The Y symbol can be used to communicate your affirmative response to a question that the aircraft or rescue organization has asked.

Arrow : Proceed in This Direction

Proceed in This Direction: Arrow, Pointing Towards the Location
Place an arrow-shaped symbol with the head, or point, of the arrow indicating the direction of your location. This symbol is a good one to use when rescuers may need additional information about how to reach your location after they have identified another ground-to-air signal, such as a group of X symbols in an open area indicating a need for medical assistance. Place the arrow in a position that will guide rescuers from the open area towards your location.

Helicopter landing space

When selecting and setting up a landing space mind the following:

  • Choose a large (half a football pitch), open area as close as possible to your location.
  • It needs to be firm and relatively horizontal.
  • Make sure there are no powerlines or other obstacles.
  • Light a beacon or have a smokey fire at the upwind side of te field, for the heli-crew to see wind direction and speed.